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English only in my PUBLIC schools

ESL-EFL

We must assimilate to communicate.  Cultures from foreign lands are welcome always, but not to replace the culture that WE have created and shared. 

The World’s first government of Liberty and Freedom is WORTH fighting for the culture that birthed it. 

The Judaeo – Christian philosophy based in Freedom of conscience is worth preserving and fighting for.  The Forefathers fought for it and shed blood for it.  We must preserve our uniqueness and TEACH that the United States of America, is the shinning city upon the hill.  If we don’t TEACH it then, blood will be covered with it. 

The United States is a gift from god almighty that we should be the hope of freedom to the WORLD!

30 May 2020 – Cheating? China? Your kid is competing against a cheating Communist for University spots. And your TAXES help

Feinstein1Feinstein2They are not students.  They are Communist spy’s.  There is not ONE person that comes to the USA that is NOT a spy.  Ask Senator Feinstein.  Was she the master?  Or was she under threat by the Communist Chinese government?  Who was in charge?  Who controlled whom?  I have a feeling that we may find out this time.

By the way, why did we accept that sealing records was OK?

The Chinese have been falsifying documents and using our government as it’s HOST.

They have a birthing industry going here as well.  They use our hotels and have babies that gain American citizenship.  They collect social security and have never lived here.

 

Chinese Cheating Rampant In US College Applications, And In Classrooms

Authored by Eduardo Neret via Campus Reform,

Fake transcripts and essays, falsified letters of recommendation and test scores, paid consultants, and fake passports and IDs. These are just some of the many methods that Chinese nationals have reportedly used to gain acceptance into U.S. colleges and universities.

What once might have been a few isolated incidents has now turned into a vast, international money-making industry.

Hiu Kit David Chong, an admissions official at the University of Southern California (USC), pleaded guilty in April to wire fraud in and helping Chinese students defraud their college applications. According to the Department of Justice, Chong admitted to making $40,000 from clients over the years by providing “false college transcripts with inflated grades,” “fraudulent personal statements,” and “phony letters of recommendation” for the applications of his Chinese clients.

He also offered to provide surrogate test takers for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam for international students.

Chong was not the only person offering such services. In fact, according to a 2012 report by Time Magazine, a “huge industry of education agents” has emerged to appeal to the increasing number of Chinese nationals who want to study abroad at U.S. universities.

Zinch China, a consultancy firm, found that 80 percent of Chinese students use agents to apply to U.S. colleges, with even more engaging in cheating. The company approximated that 90 percent of recommendation letters and 70 percent of college essays submitted by Chinese students are fraudulent. Additionally, 50 percent of previous grade transcripts are also fake. Ten percent lied about academic or extracurricular achievements, and 30 percent lied about financial aid information.

Surveys indicate Chinese families see a U.S. education as a luxury that can provide future financial benefits, which drives the “whatever it takes” culture surrounding the application process and the fraud committed to achieve it. Zinch China also noted the competition among college consultants and the pressure from parents also contributed to cheating.

“Cheating is pervasive in China, driven by hyper-competitive parents and aggressive agents,” Tom Melcher, the chairman of Zinch China said.

While Chinese students have existed in the U.S. for decades, there has been increased growth over the last ten years. According to the Power of International Education, the number of Chinese foreign students in the U.S. as of 2019 was 369,548, which was more than the next three nations, India, South Korea, and Saudi Arabia, combined. Chinese students represent approximately one-third of all international students, and their presence has grown by 56.68 percent since the 2012-2013 academic year.

Peggy Blumenthal, senior counselor to the president of the Institute of International Education, says colleges began to more heavily recruit Chinese international students after the Great Recession when college enrollment was on the decline. Agents can cost anywhere from thousands of dollars, or even up to $40,000 according to the Beijing Overseas Study Service Association. Foreign Policy even discovered a family that paid $90,000 to an agent.

In one example from 2015, CNN reported on a Chinese student named Jessica Zhang from Jiangsu Province. Zhang’s family paid $4,500 to three different consultants, who filled out her application and wrote her essay and recommendation letter. Zhang even had her visa arranged by the consultants and said she hired them because the process would’ve been “too much hassle” on her own.

The international college consultant business is only worsened by the commissions that agents receive from U.S. colleges and universities for enrolling students. While federal laws prevent higher education institutions from paying to recruit domestic students, there is no law to prevent them from paying commissions to recruit international students.

Some companies even help students cheat on the SAT. Because of security issues with the College Board over the last few years, which owns the SAT, some overseas companies have obtained the answer keys to the test.

According to Reuters, since 2014, the College Board has delayed the release of scores from Asia six times and canceled exams two separate times—all because exam material had been made available. Surprisingly, the College Board later restricted testing and increased security in other Asian countries like South Korea, where some test leaks occurred, but took no such action in China.

One such student who received an answer key from his Shanghai-based tutoring company bragged about getting a perfect score on one section of the SAT, since he knew the answers to approximately half of the questions in advance.

“The reality is for international students, particularly in Asia, there’s a worry about whether the application is authentic, whether the essay is authentic, whether the person who shows up at your door is the same person who applied,” Joyce E. Smith, chief executive of the National Association for College Admission Counseling told Reuters.

Unfortunately for U.S. colleges and universities, which have struggled to monitor and identify the fraud, reports seem to suggest that cheating only continues once many of these students are on campus or in the U.S.

Schools like the University of Arizona, Ohio State University, and the University of Iowa have experienced cheating scandals involving Chinese students. An analysis by the Wall Street Journal found that records of cheating for international students at more than a “dozen large” U.S. public universities were five times greater than that of American students. At some universities, the reported cases of cheating among international students were eight times higher than domestic students.

In one egregious example, the University of Iowa estimated in 2016 that dozens of their Chinese students enrolled in a service that Reuters reported would complete a lot of the work needed to obtain a university degree, including completing assignments and taking exams.

 

Reuters also uncovered similar Chinese cheating services offered to students at Penn State University, the University of Alabama, and the University of Washington. The companies also offered a money-back guarantee to students who did not get As in their classes.

The “Varsity Blues” college admissions scandal in 2019 even involved cases of cheating and visa fraud. The federal government arrested Liu Cai, a Chinese student who attended UCLA, and four other California residents of Chinese descent for using fake passports to impersonate Chinese nationals to take the TOEFL exam, which is required to obtain a student visa.

Some professors have tried to address the cases of academic dishonesty and lack of effort in the classroom, but have faced challenges in doing so.

At UC-Santa Barbara, art professor Kip Fulbeck, who himself is of Chinese descent, faced backlash in 2018 after writing a set of class expectations in Chinese for the Chinese international students. According to the L.A. Times, Fulbeck became frustrated with students sleeping or being distracted by their phones in class, as well as those who left the class and did not come back. Fulbeck began to realize that a significant number of students engaging in such behavior were Chinese international students.

Fulbeck later met with UC Santa Barbara’s Vice-Chancellor and some aggrieved students, but ultimately blamed the school for failing to deal with the increasing number of Chinese students and educating them on American classroom and education standards. He was also not the only professor aware of the rampant cheating among Chinese students.

Paul Spickard, a history professor at UC-Santa Barbara and member of the faculty admissions committee, told the L.A. Times that at a meeting, faculty were told that Chinese students account for one-third of all plagiarism cases on campus, despite only comprising 6 percent of the entire student population. Spickard caught one Chinese student’s plagiarism after the student used old British English colloquialisms and citations that were over 50 years old.

Richard Ross, another art professor at the university, told the L.A. Times that he even resigned over the growing cheating problem.

“My role turned from educator to enforcer, and I didn’t want to do it anymore,” Ross said.

from – https://www.zerohedge.com/personal-finance/chinese-cheating-rampant-us-college-applications-and-classrooms

I have worked with many internationals in my job and I don’t see the Chinese as being as intelligent as their reputations.  And in some cases I wonder if their reputations are false.  Maybe that was a psychological operation.  Truth always finds it’s way to the surface

 

 

 

30 May 2020 – It’s called MUTINY – a person holding government office in coordination with domestic terror groups

And he’s been doing this for YEARS

So, WHERE is Ellison today?  My bet is that he is coordinating.  A tiger doesn’t just shed his stripes

EllisonOsamaBinLaden

EXCLUSIVE: Keith Ellison Pictured With Portland ANTIFA Leader At Minnesota State Fair

On the heels of an unprecedented Minneapolis Police press conference this week in which officers warned citizens to not vote for Keith Ellison, photographs obtained by Big League Politics contributor Laura Loomer show Ellison and Luis Enrique Marquez, a notorious leader of the Portland ANTIFA who has a criminal record and has carried the Communist flag.

Ellison’s support of ANTIFA is no secret, but as a candidate for Attorney General, his relationship with a violent member of ANTIFA, which has been designated as a domestic terrorist organization by the US Department of State, is concerning.

Trending: RIOTS: Ilhan Omar and Her Daughter Encourage Chaos and Mayhem in the Minnesota Streets

As a result of his criminal actions as the leader of Portland ANTIFA, Luis Enrique Marquez was booked into the Multonomah County Jail and Conditionally released June 30, 2018 having been charged with two counts of theft (one 2nd degree and one 3rd degree) and 3rd degree assault per Jail Employee ID 93275.

—————————-me

 Employee? what? 

Why would they have “employee” as a nomenclature?

—————————-me

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“City and federal law enforcement officers arrested nine people in downtown Portland Saturday during competing rallies that law enforcement officials ultimately declared a riot due to violence. Portland’s Rose City Antifa and Vancouver’s Patriot Prayer were the primary groups involved,” the Portland Patch reported in June. 

Luis Enrique Marquez was one of those nine people arrested in what police described as violent protests.

Luis Enrique Marquez not only has a history of arrests, but he is the subject of several YouTube videos which display his ANTIFA associations and violent behavior. Again, this is who Keith Ellison was spotted hanging out with at the Minnesota State Fair. Sources who wish to remain anonymous for the sake of their safety told Big League Politics that Ellison spent over an hour with Luis Enrique Marquez, whose next court date is scheduled for November 28, 2018 according  to Multonomah Court employee Anthony Tran.

WATCH:

Along with being a six-term lawmaker who represents Minnesota’s 5th District, Ellison is the first Muslim to ever be elected to the U.S. Congress, and has served as the Deputy Chair of the Democratic National Committee since 2017. When he was sworn into office, Ellison refused to be sworn in with a Bible, and instead demanded that a Quran be used as a way to emphasize “religious tolerance.”

It is unclear how Ellison, who has himself called for violent riots composed of Islamists and ANTIFA to “stop Trump” is in any way whatsoever qualified to be Minnesota’s Attorney General.

While campaigning for the Democrats last year, Ellison said, “Trump must be stopped, and people power is what we have at our disposal to make him stop. We need mass rallies. We need them all over the country. We need them in Texas. We need them in D.C. We need them in Minnesota.”

ANTIFA, which has been classified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as a Left wing domestic terrorist organization, is often present at those rallies Ellison and his DNC colleagues have called for and organized. There are countless instances, many of which have been caught on camera, of ANTIFA members violently assaulting Trump supporters and journalists in public. In 2017, it was also revealed that the FBI has been investigating members of ANTIFA who they say have been traveling to the Middle East to train with ISIS in an effort to plan for the destruction of President Trump.

Despite being classified as a terrorist organization, Ellison tweeted a picture of himself posing with the official ANTIFA handbook, saying, “At @MoonPalaceBooks and I just found the book that strike fear in the heart of @realDonaldTrump.”

https://twitter.com/keithellison/status/948657342308147202?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.chicagotribune.com%2Fnews%2Fnationworld%2Fpolitics%2Fct-keith-ellison-antifa-handbook-tweet-20180104-story.html

Combined with his refusal to take his oath on a US Constitution, along with his personal associations with ANTIFA, Ellison ought to be disqualified from the Attorney General race, as it is entirely unsafe and unreasonable for Minnesota’s top cop to have personal ties to members of both domestic and foreign terrorist organizations. Along with his support of domestic ANTIFA terrorists, Ellison is also tied associated with Linda Sarsour and Louis Farakkhan.

What a lot of people don’t know about KEITH Ellison:

  • Ellison was an active supporter and local LEADER of the Nation of Islam before his election to Congress.
  • Ellison first sought office as  Democrat in 1998 as Ellison-Muhammad, a self-avowed member of the Nation of Islam (This is just one of three known Nation of Islam names Ellison has used over time).
  • In 1992, Minneapolis Police Officer Jerry Haaf was executed at the Pizza Shack by four members of the Vice Lords Gang. The gang’s leader, Sherif Willis, was shown to have been involved in the planning of the murder, but he was never charged because police said they lacked sufficient evidence. At the time, Ellison was a Minneapolis attorney in private practice. Willis was a convicted murderer who ran a gang front called United for Peace. Following this public execution, within a month of Haaf’s murder, Ellison stood shoulder to shoulder with Willis, going so far as to participate in the organization of a gang demonstration against police. Months later, Ellison spoke at another demonstration in support of one of Haaf’s killers.
  • In October, 1992, Ellison helped organize a United for Peace demonstration against the Minneapolis Police. Ellison stated, “The main point of our rally is to support United for Peace in its fight against the campaign of slander the police federation has been waging.”

Ellison publicly supported the Haaf murder defendants. In February, 1993, he spoke at a demonstration for one of the defendants during their trial, leading them in chanting, “We don’t get no justice, you don’t get no peace,” which is almost word for word what the modern day Black Lives Matter movement chants at their demonstrations.

In 2000 Ellison spoke at a fundraiser for Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) member Kathleen Soliah, who had been a fugitive on the run from justice for 25 years, on charges of attempting to bomb L.A. police officers in 1975. In his National Lawyers Guild speech, Ellison had kind words of support for cop killers Mumia Abu-Jamal and  “Assata Shakur” aka Joanne Chesimard, who was wanted for the murder of New Jersey State Trooper Werner Foerster in 1973.

As if all of this evidence backed up by actual photographs ins’t enough to make one see how unfit Ellison is for serving as Minnesota Attorney General, Luis Enrique Marquez, who was reported to have spent a lengthy amount of time hanging out with Ellison at the Minnesota State Fair was also pictured waving a communist hammer and sickle flag. Under communism, more than 100 Million people have been killed as a result of famine and political violence.


Laura Loomer is a conservative investigative journalist and activist. Originally from Arizona, Laura began her career working as an undercover journalist for Project Veritas from 2015-2017. She covers politics, anti-Semitism, immigration, terrorism, the Islamification of the West, and voter fraud. Loomer’s investigations have been broadcasted on every major national mainstream media outlet in the United States, as well as many international publications. Support Laura Loomer’s Independent Journalism here: PayPal.me/lauraloomer

30 May 2020 – SpaceX and NASA launch Dragon, while race riots rage ignited by the same Communists – “a set up”

Instead of celebrating the GOOD of America these people riot

DRAGON is launched

 

DragonLaunch1

 

NASA Live: Official Stream of NASA TV

 

 

DragonLaunch2

Dragon is a flip off to China

DragonLaunch3

 

The same Communists that started all the other riots started these riots and some of them sit in the same leadership positions

EllisonAntifaEllisonOsamaBinLaden

These riots are not organic

The tools for riots are being NOT organically attained.  They are in fact being delivered and staged at the locations that have been PRE designated.  THIS IS PLANNED.  I’m trying to find images of buses.  The buses are being PAID for by organizations that can be tied to people who MUST be held accountable.  Soros may be one, but he is NOT the ONLY one.  ALL must be traced!!!!!

The man in this video:

This is a set up –

“they put them there on purpose”

“aint no damn construction going on up here”

“where do them bricks go to?”

 

thisISaSETUP

 

 

 

 

28 May 2020 – President Trump puts a leash on Social media – media goes berserk

Twitter silences free speech.  Therefore, the only way to square that is to silence the silencers.  The wrong is to silence, therefore to correct the wrong is to USE that wrong against the one perpetrating it.  Choosing any other way, at this type of evil will never square the wrong.  GOOD vs EVIL.  Moral vs Immoral.  Constitutional vs UN-Constitutional.

People often say two wrongs don’t make a right.  However, President Trump is NOT silencing Twitter.  Twitter has free speech.  They only thing that he is doing is UNDOING what they have chosen to impose.  Therefore, he is not silencing them.  He is using the EVIL that THEY created to REMOVE THAT said EVIL.  It’s out of THEIR mouths that this Order is coming.  Not unlike Pharaoh, who declare Israel’s first born to be killed, rather god had said prior that it will be PHARAOH that chooses the NEXT plague.

THEY did this to themselves.

Are they a public platform ? or NOT?

If not, then Trump should cease Tweeting and decree that NO other government or affiliated agency or company associated with the government shall use any current social media and create an official gov platform for speech.

Either that or SOCIAL media must be classified as a UTILITY. Then, if there is a need for private competition to the Utility, then the private industry is welcome to compete.  But no gov or affiliate or official can use any platform other than the OFFICIAL platform.  The official platform doesn’t have to be Twitter.  If can be readily developed.  There are other platforms that are just as good now.  But people use Twitter because the official government agencies use it.

Trump to Sign Executive Order on Social Media on Thursday, WH Says

Trump to Sign Executive Order on Social Media on Thursday, WH Says
(Getty Images)

Wednesday, 27 May 2020 10:47 PM

President Donald Trump will sign an executive order on social media companies on Thursday, White House officials said after Trump threatened to shut down websites he accused of stifling conservative voices.

The officials gave no further details. It was unclear how Trump could follow through on the threat of shutting down privately owned companies including Twitter Inc. The company declined comment.

The dispute erupted after Twitter on Tuesday for the first time tagged Trump’s tweets about unsubstantiated claims of fraud in mail-in voting with a warning prompting readers to fact check the posts.

 

——me

This is gaslighting.  Anyone can do a tertiary search on Google or whatever and find articles of Voter Fraud confirmed.

——me

Separately, a three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals in Washington on Wednesday upheld the dismissal of a lawsuit by a conservative group and right-wing YouTube personality against Google, Facebook, Twitter and Apple accusing them of conspiring to suppress conservative political views.

In an interview with Fox News Channel on Wednesday, Facebook’s Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg said censoring a platform would not be the “right reflex” for a government worried about censorship. Fox played a clip of the interview and said it would be aired in full on Thursday.

Facebook left Trump’s post on mail-in ballots on Tuesday untouched.

The American Civil Liberties Union said the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution limits any action Trump could take. Facebook and Google declined comment. Apple did not respond to a request for comment.

“Republicans feel that Social Media Platforms totally silence conservatives voices. We will strongly regulate, or close them down, before we can ever allow this to happen,” Trump said in a pair of additional posts on Twitter on Wednesday.

The president, a heavy user of Twitter with more than 80 million followers, added: “Clean up your act, NOW!!!!”

Republican Trump has an eye on the November election. “Big Tech is doing everything in their very considerable power to CENSOR in advance of the 2020 Election,” Trump tweeted on Wednesday night. “If that happens, we no longer have our freedom.”

STRONGEST THREAT YET

Trump’s threat is his strongest yet within a broader conservative backlash against Big Tech. Shares of both Twitter and Facebook fell on Wednesday.

Last year the White House circulated drafts of a proposed executive order about anti-conservative bias which never gained traction.

The Internet Association, which includes Twitter and Facebook among its members, said online platforms do not have a political bias and they offer “more people a chance to be heard than at any point in history.”

Asked during Twitter’s annual meeting on Wednesday why the company decided to affix the label to Trump’s mail-in ballot tweets, General Counsel Sean Edgett said decisions about handling misinformation are made as a group.

“We have a group and committee of folks who take a look at these things and make decisions on what’s getting a lot of visibility and traction …,” he said.

In recent years Twitter has tightened its policies amid criticism that its hands-off approach allowed fake accounts and misinformation to thrive.

Tech companies have been accused of anti-competitive practices and violating user privacy. Apple, Google, Facebook and Amazon face antitrust probes by federal and state authorities and a U.S. congressional panel.

Republican and Democratic lawmakers, along with the U.S. Justice Department, have been considering changes to Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, a federal law largely exempting online platforms from legal liability for the material their users post. Such changes could expose tech companies to more lawsuits.

Republican Senator Josh Hawley, a frequent critic of Big Tech companies, sent a letter to Twitter Chief Executive Jack Dorsey asking why the company should continue to receive legal immunity after “choosing to editorialize on President Trump’s tweets.”

—–me

they should not

 

—–me

 

27 MAY 2020- Food-deprived bumblebees manipulate the timing of a plant’s flowering -READ HOW HERE

I’m total geek – I love finding stuff like this

An Incredible New Bumble Bee Behavior Was Just Discovered – So Sophisticated, Scientists Cannot Reproduce

Bumble Bee Flower

Facing a scarcity of pollen, bumblebees will nibble on the leaves of flowerless plants, causing intentional damage in such a way that accelerates the production of flowers, according to a new study, which reports on a previously unknown behavior of bumblebees.

The leaf-damaging bumblebee bites have a drastic effect on plant flowering, compelling some to bloom two weeks to a full month earlier. Although the mechanisms by which deliberate bee damage accelerate flowering remain unclear, the results reveal bumblebees as powerful agents in influencing the local availability of floral resources.

“An encouraging interpretation of the new findings is that behavioral adaptations of flower-visitors can provide pollination systems with more plasticity and resilience to cope with climate change than hitherto suspected,” writes Lars Chittka in a related Perspective. Plants and pollinators rely on one another for survival.

Just as pollinators, like bumblebees, depend on flowers for crucial nutrition, plants need pollinators to reproduce. This symbiotic relationship is kept in balance by the synchronous timing of the emergence of hibernating insects and spring blossoms as spring temperatures rise and the days get longer. But this fragile arrangement is threatened by climate change. For instance, warming early season temperatures could cause pollinators to wake up too soon, before the springtime bloom and without a source of food.

Foteini Pashalidou and colleagues discovered an adaptive strategy used by food-deprived bumblebees to manipulate the timing of a plant’s flowering. Pashalidou et al. observed bumblebee workers from pollen-starved colonies use their mouthparts to cut distinctively shaped holes in the leaves of flowering plants, which resulted in them flowering significantly earlier.

The authors were not able to reproduce the flower-stimulating effects by mimicking the damage on their own, however, suggesting a yet-unknown feature distinct to the bees’ approach. “Understanding the molecular pathways by which one could accelerate flowering by a full month, as reported [by Pashalidou et al.], would be a horticulturalist’s dream,” Chittka writes.

Reference: “Bumble bees damage plant leaves and accelerate flower production when pollen is scarce” by Foteini G. Pashalidou, Harriet Lambert, Thomas Peybernes, Mark C. Mescher and Consuelo M. De Moraes, 22 May 2020, Science.
DOI: 10.1126/science.aay0496

 

FROM – https://scitechdaily.com/an-incredible-new-bumble-bee-behavior-was-just-discovered-so-sophisticated-scientists-cannot-reproduce/

 

27 MAY 2020 – ELON MUSK’S SPACEX – DELAY – I LIKE THE NEW SUITS !

Air Force One and launch pad
Air Force One flies above Launch Complex 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying President Donald Trump to witness SpaceX’s Crew Dragon launch. (GeekWire Photo / Kevin Lisota)

Update for 1:16 p.m. PT: Today’s launch of the SpaceX Crew Dragon is being postponed until May 30, due to unacceptable weather. Check back for a full update.

Previously: Nearly nine years after the last space shuttle flew, NASA and SpaceX are counting down to the next launch to put astronauts into orbit from Florida.

The launch of SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket will mark the first-ever use of a privately owned spaceship for a crewed orbital launch, and a renaissance for U.S. spaceflight.

“We are once again launching American astronauts on American rockets from American soil, and this is a big moment in time,” NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said during a launch-eve briefing.

“This is a dream come true, for me and for everyone at SpaceX,” Elon Musk, the California-based company’s CEO, told a NASA interviewer as he waited for liftoff. “This is not something that I ever thought would actually happen. … It’s really hard to believe that this is real.”

NASA astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken are due to ride SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule and Falcon 9 rocket to the International Space Station from Launch Complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. It’s the same launch pad where the Apollo 11 crew began their journey to the moon, and where the first and the last space shuttle mission blasted off.

Liftoff is scheduled for 4:33 p.m. ET (1:33 p.m. PT) today, and NASA TV is streaming live coverage of the countdown. In-person viewing of the launch was restricted due to concerns about the coronavirus pandemic, but more than 2.5 million people watched the proceedings online.

Musk said he spoke with the astronauts’ families before Hurley and Behnken headed to the launch pad, and told their children: “We’ve done everything we can to make sure your dad’s coming back OK.”

The pair rode to the pad in a Tesla Model X SUV. After riding an elevator to the top of the launch tower, they signed their names on the wall of the white room leading to the Crew Dragon’s hatch, marking the start of a new tradition. They were helped to their seats by SpaceX’s black-clad “ninjas” and went through a series of communication checks. Then the hatch was closed, a little less than two hours before launch.

Assuming the launch happens today, President Donald Trump is expected to talk about the milestone mission and its significance at Kennedy Space Center’s iconic Vehicle Assembly Building.

But launching today isn’t a sure thing: Forecasters said the chances of acceptable weather to 50 percent, with Tropical Storm Bertha passing over the Carolina coast, and there were further concerns about conditions in the Atlantic Ocean recovery zones that would have to be used for a premature splashdown in the event of an emergency.

As usual for a Falcon 9 launch, SpaceX has ships out in the Atlantic to recover the rocket’s first-stage booster and nose cone. Additional military vessels are on alert just in case Hurley and Behnken have to be plucked out of the ocean.

At T-minus-45 minutes, the launch team gave the go-ahead for the Falcon 9 to be fueled up and for the Crew Dragon’s launch escape system to be armed. The weather was still iffy.

If SpaceX and NASA decide to postpone the launch, due to weather concerns or any last-minute technical problem, the backup dates are May 30 and 31. But if the launch goes as planned, the Crew Dragon will catch up with the space station for a docking on Thursday.

A test pilot’s dream

Hurley and Behnken are scheduled to spend somewhere between six and 16 weeks on the station, living and working alongside NASA crewmate Chris Cassidy and Russian cosmonauts Anatoly Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner. Because of the uncertainties surrounding their test mission, it’s not yet clear what duties the Dragon riders will take on. Behnken has even been trained to take on a spacewalk if needed.

At the end of their tour of duty, Hurley and Behnken will climb back into the Crew Dragon for the descent to an Atlantic Ocean splashdown and recovery. Then NASA will assess the spacecraft’s performance, work with SpaceX to make tweaks if necessary, and get set to launch another crew on a different Dragon.

Hurley and Behnken are both veteran military test pilots with space shuttle experience. During a pre-launch news conference, Behnken said he was excited to be one of the first people to fly on a Crew Dragon.

“It’s probably the dream of every test pilot school student to have the opportunity to fly on a brand new spaceship, and I’m lucky to get that opportunity with my good friend here,” he said.

 

Hurley was the pilot on the shuttle Atlantis’ mission to the space station in 2011, which closed out the 30-year shuttle program. During that flight, Atlantis’ crew left behind a U.S. flag that was reserved for the next crew to arrive at the space station after a launch from Florida. Now he’s in line to retrieve that same flag.

“We’ll bring it back when we come back later this summer,” Hurley said.

Since Hurley’s previous flight, NASA has had to pay the Russians up to $80 million a seat to have its astronauts ferried back and forth from the space station on Soyuz spacecraft. If the Crew Dragon demonstration mission is successful, NASA will essentially be paying U.S. companies for space taxi rides instead. Any future Soyuz rides will be arranged on a barter basis.

 

——–me—

NOT SURE IF I LIKE THAT EITHER. 

I LIKE THE NEW SUITS

——–me—

14 years of space commercialization

Replacing NASA’s old space shuttles was no easy or quick task: The job actually started back in 2006, when NASA made its first selections for commercial cargo transport services. With NASA’s financial support, SpaceX developed a first-generation, uncrewed Dragon capsule to serve those cargo needs. (Another cargo capsule called the Cygnus was built by Orbital Sciences, which is now part of Northrop Grumman.)

In 2014, SpaceX and Boeing were selected to provide more capable space taxis that would have all the safety features required for crewed flight. SpaceX redesigned its cargo-capable Dragon to accommodate crew, while Boeing built a new type of capsule called Starliner.

Both SpaceX and Boeing suffered setbacks. SpaceX notched a success with an uncrewed Crew Dragon demonstration mission to the space station and back in March 2019, but just weeks later, the Dragon erupted in fire during a test of its thrusters. The propulsion system had to be redesigned to fix the problem for good.

Last December, a software glitch spoiled Starliner’s uncrewed mission to the space station, forcing Boeing to take dozens of corrective actions. As a result, another uncrewed test mission will need to be flown, and Boeing seems certain to miss out on capturing the flag.

Although the spaceship development effort has taken longer than expected, NASA officials said in a recent report that the space agency got a relative bargain.

Phil McAllister, NASA’s director of commercial spaceflight, estimated that the space agency spent about $6 billion for the development of the two commercial crew transport systems .He said it would have cost $20 billion to $30 billion more for NASA to build its own system with similar capabilities.

That assessment suggests SpaceX CEO Elon Musk accurately predicted the future back in 2006 when he discussed what commercialization would mean for America’s space effort. “This is going to be the best value for money that NASA and the American taxpayers have ever received,” he told me at the time.

Theoretically, all those savings will free up NASA to set its sights beyond Earth orbit, to the moon and Mars. NASA has been spending tens of billions of dollars to build an Orion deep-space capsule as well as a heavy-lift rocket called the Space Launch System to send astronauts to the lunar surface by as early as 2024.

But at the same time, SpaceX and other launch companies are also setting their sights higher. SpaceX is currently developing a super-heavy-lift launch system called Starship, which Musk has said could be flying missions to the moon and Mars by the mid-2020s. Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos’ privately held space company, Blue Origin, has lunar ambitions as well.

Meanwhlle, both SpaceX and Boeing are making plans to fly their own customers on space taxis, perhaps including action hero Tom Cruise. NASA’s Bridenstine has said he welcomes the companies’ efforts to drum up more business.

“We are going to be one customer of many customers in a robust commercial marketplace,” he said last year.

So if all goes well with SpaceX’s first-ever crewed spaceflight, it may not be long before NASA isn’t the only one having Dragon riders sent into orbit.

This report was first published at 9:10 a.m. PT May 27 and his been updated frequently since then.

 

25 May 2020 – Where is all the money going if the hospitals are empty?

If all the hospitals are empty, then why were they previously FULL?  Were these patients really needing treatment?  Who was paying for all the NON – ESSENTIAL  hospitalizations?

$21M Brooklyn field hospital never saw a patient amid coronavirus pandemic

A roughly $21 million Brooklyn field hospital authorized by the de Blasio administration at the height of the coronavirus pandemic opened and closed without ever seeing one patient, according to city officials.

————- me

d e Blasio ——https://www.nydailynews.com/news/election/de-blasio-names-de-blasio-article-1.1463591

————- me


The Brooklyn Cruise Terminal in Red Hook was one of several sites across the five boroughs converted into a medical facility as a way to relieve the city’s overburdened hospital system as the COVID-19 crisis mounted.

Mayor Bill de Blasio announced plans on Mar. 31 — a day after the USNS Comfort hospital ship arrived in New York Harbor to aid in the coronavirus fight — for the $20.8 million Red Hook field hospital with an estimated capacity for 750 beds.

The field hospital was built by Texas-based construction company SLSCO.

“They are going to set it up rapidly and we’re then going to go to the next site, the next site, the next site to meet our goal,” de Blasio told reporters of the site during that press conference in which the mayor also outlined the details to turn Queens’ Billie Jean King National Tennis Center into a 350-bed temporary hospital.

Enlarge ImageThe Brooklyn Cruise Terminal in Red Hook
The field hospital was closed before it ever opened.

The makeshift hospital at the Brooklyn Cruise Terminal was expected to open in April, but was not ready until May 4 – and is now being disbanded after being left unused, The City first reported.

“As part of our hospital surge, we expanded capacity at a breakneck speed, ensuring our hospital infrastructure would be prepared to handle the very worst. We did so only with a single-minded focus: saving lives,” de Blasio spokeswoman Avery Cohen told The Post Friday.

“Over the past few months, social distancing, face coverings, and other precautionary measures have flattened the curve drastically, and we remain squarely on focused taking that progress even further,” Cohen added.

The funding for the Red Hook hospital is expected to be reimbursed by FEMA.
FILED UNDER         5/22/20

23 May 2020 – STUDY- “Important implications for the interaction between microwaves and biological tissues, which is a highly concerned public issue.” Virus – epidemics – controlled via Microwave

I’ve highlighted the parts below that I found very interesting.

IEEE is a standard used in all computer and electronic equipment.  So, these implications are also concerning when applied to all who are in close proximity to Data centers or high frequency towers as well.  If these frequencies kill virus’, then they can be acting upon other things as well.  There is not enough study about this on other things other than virus’.  We need more studies in this regard.

 

Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses

Associated Data

Supplementary Materials

Abstract

Virus is known to resonate in the confined-acoustic dipolar mode with microwave of the same frequency. However this effect was not considered in previous virus-microwave interaction studies and microwave-based virus epidemic prevention. Here we show that this structure-resonant energy transfer effect from microwaves to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. We demonstrate this effect by measuring the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwaves with different frequencies and powers. We also established a theoretical model to estimate the microwaves power threshold for virus inactivation and good agreement with experiments was obtained. Such structure-resonant energy transfer induced inactivation is mainly through physically fracturing the virus structure, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus.

In the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been made to kill airborne viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus or influenza viruses, which have caused catastrophic illness worldwide. Current airborne virus epidemic prevention to be used in public space includes strong chemical inactivation, UV irradiation, and microwave thermal heating. All these methods affect the open public. In 1980s, Robach et al. and Cerf  demonstrated that ultrasonic energy can be absorbed by viruses. In 2000, Babincová et al. hypothesized that viruses can be inactivated by generating the corresponding resonance ultrasound vibrations of viruses, which is in the GHz region. Based on this hypothesis, several groups started investigating the vibrational modes of viruses in this frequency range,,,. Recently we demonstrated that dipolar mode of the confined acoustic vibrations (CAVs) inside viruses can be resonantly excited by microwaves of the same frequency with a resonant microwave absorption effect. The observed microwave resonance absorption phenomenon indicates a possible structure-resonant energy transfer (SRET) effect from electromagnetic waves (EM waves) to CAVs of viruses. Theoretically this SRET process is an efficient way to excite the vibrational mode of the whole virus structure due to a 100% energy conversion of a photon into a phonon of the same frequency, but the overall SRET efficiency is also related to the mechanical properties of the surrounding environment, which influences the quality factor of the oscillator (virus). A study on the SRET efficiency to inactive virus is thus highly desired and it will determine if this SRET phenomenon provides a solution to inactivate airborne viruses in open public for epidemic prevention.

In this article, we show that SRET from microwave to virus can be efficient enough so that airborne virus was inactivated with reasonable microwave power density safe for the open public. To investigate the SRET efficiency from EM waves to CAVs in viruses, we first developed a theoretical model to describe the relation between the induced stress and the field magnitude of the illuminating microwave. Since the viruses could be inactivated when the induced stress fractures the structure of viruses, we propose to explore the SRET efficiency from microwaves to viruses through measuring the virus inactivation threshold. Based on the proposed model, we studied the inactivation ratio of influenza A (H3N2) virus at dipolar-mode-resonance and off-resonance microwave frequencies as well as with different microwave powers. Plaque assay was then applied to calculate the titer of virus samples before and after the microwave illumination. Our results indicate efficient SRET from microwave to viruses, which resulted in higher inactivation ratio of viruses at the dipolar resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency, the microwave power density threshold for H3N2 inactivation was found to be below the IEEE safety standard, also agreeing well with our developed theoretical model. The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) method was further performed to confirm that the main inactivation mechanism is through physically fracturing the viruses while the RNA genome was not degraded by the microwave illumination, supporting the fact that our studied SRET mechanism is fundamentally different from the microwave thermal heating effect. These results provide a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne virus.

Modelling

From the transmission electron microscope images, people knew that the virions of influenza viruses are basically spherical balls packing genomes inside. Since the protein and genome have similar mechanical properties, for the estimation of dipolar vibration frequencies, we treat the virion as a homogenous sphere.

Dipolar Mode of a Homogeneous Sphere

Due to the spatial confinement, not only electronic but also acoustic energy quantization has been observed in low dimensional systems such as quantum dots and nano-wires. In 1882, Lamb studied the torsional (TOR) and spheroidal (SPH) modes of a homogeneous free sphere by considering the stress-free boundary condition on the surface. Among these modes, the SPH mode with An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m1.jpg allows dipolar coupling and the corresponding eigenvalue equation can be expressed as,:

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whereAn external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m3.jpg An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m4.jpg , An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m5.jpg is the spherical Bessel function of the first kind, ω is the angular frequency of the vibrational mode, R is the radius of the nano-sphere, cland ctare longitudinal and transverse sound velocities respectively. A comparison between the commonly observed An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m6.jpgbreathing mode and the An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m7.jpg dipolar mode can be found in Supplementary online. the Since the An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m8.jpg dipolar mode of a nano-sphere cannot be detected by the light scattering experiments, it was not observed until a previous study of the resonant excitation of dipolar mode through THz wave or microwave excitations, when the core and shell of the nano-sphere have permanent charge separation. Once the resonantly oscillating electric field was applied to the nano-sphere, opposite displacement between core and shell was generated, thus excited the dipolar mode vibrations. Compared with the breathing (An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m9.jpg) and quadrapolar (An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m10.jpg) modes, dipolar mode (An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m11.jpg) is the only SPH mode to directly interact with the EM waves whose wavelength is much longer than the particle’s size. Due to the permanent charge separation nature of viruses, in 2009, dipolar coupling with An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m12.jpg CAVs is confirmed to be the mechanisms responsible for microwave resonant absorption in viruses by treating spherical viruses as free homogeneous nanoparticles,.

Figure 1 shows the simulated displacement field of the dipolar mode (calculated by the finite element method, COMSOL Multiphysics, COMSOL, Inc.) of a homogeneous sphere (mass density and viscoelastic properties are constant throughout the sphere). We define the relative displacement direction of the dipolar mode as the z-direction, which will also be the field direction of the applied EM waves discussed in the next section. By plotting the displacement field of the x-z plane (y = 0) of the sphere, the opposite displacement between the core and shell regions can be clearly observed in Fig. 1(b). Meanwhile Fig. 1 (c) shows the side view of the distortion of the x-y plane of the sphere at different z locations, which concludes that the maximum distortion occurs on the equatorial plane (z = 0) of the sphere. Figure 1(d) shows the top view of the displacement field of the equatorial plane (z = 0). It is interesting to find out that the magnitude of averaged positive displacement (inner region) is 1.27 times the magnitude of the averaged negative displacement (outer region), while positive and negative displacements occupy 42% and 58% area, respectively. Furthermore one can find that the maximum magnitude of the displacement, occurring either at the very center or the outer surface of the equatorial plane, is approximately twice of the averaged magnitude of the displacement.

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(a) Schematic showing a homogeneous sphere and applied electric field (b) Displacement field distribution of the x-z plane (y = 0) of the sphere, (c) side view of the distortion of the x-y plane at different z location and (d) top view of the displacement field distribution of the equator plane (z = 0) of the sphere when dipolar resonance mode is excited.

A Damped Mass-Spring Model

In this work, microwaves were applied to excite the dipolar resonance of the whole virus structure. By exciting the dipolar mode of the nanosphere, core and shell with opposite charge distributions would move in opposite directions and will resonate like a damped mass-spring system. Our following analysis is similar to the Drude-Lorentz model describing the light-atom interaction, which connects a damped mass-spring system to the quantum-mechanical electronic resonant transitions. In the damped mass-spring system by adopting the reduced mass (m*) of core and shell in the analysis, the relative motion of the displacement can be shown in the following equation:

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where z is the relative displacement between the core and shell; b is the damping coefficient, which is related to the surrounding environment; k is the effective spring constant of this system. By assuming z(t) proportional to exp(iωt), one can solve the complex angular frequency of the resonator as:

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Therefore the decay rate of the oscillation equals to the imaginary part of the frequency (b/2m*), which corresponds to ω0/2Q:

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The intrinsic resonance angular frequency (ω0) of this system is (k/An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m16.jpg)0.5Q is the quality factor of the resonator. From equation (4), stronger damping increased the energy transfer between the resonator and its surrounding environment, which decreases the confinement of the vibration and leads the lower Q. Now we approximate that a spherical virus is like a homogeneous sphere but with opposite and equal charges in the core and shell regions. When the oscillating electric field (An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m17.jpgcosAn external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m18.jpg) of microwaves is applied to the system, forced displacements would be induced with the same frequency as the applied microwaves. The equation of motion now needs to include the force induced by the applied electric field (qE), where q is the total amount of charge distributed in the core and shell region of a virus:

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We describe the forced displacement as An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m20.jpg, where A is the amplitude of the forced displacement and An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m21.jpg is the phase delay between the displacement and the applied electric field. By solving the particular solution of this differential equation, one can obtain the phase delay and the amplitude of the forced oscillating displacement as

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and

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The instantaneous power absorption of this system is then described as the following equation, where v is the velocity of the oscillating motion:

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By integrating over one full cycle, one can obtain the average power absorption from the system:

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Then the absorption cross-section An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m26.jpg of the virus can be obtained by setting the input power flux as An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m27.jpg with

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where An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m29.jpg is the relative permittivity in the system and c is the speed of light in vacuum.

Threshold to Fracture a Virus

With oscillating dipolar vibration to inactivate a virus, the most possible mechanism is to fracture the most outer surface of the equatorial plane (z = 0) due to the location of the maximum distortions, as illustrated in Fig. 1 (c,d). For influenza viruses, this corresponds to the lipid membrane of the envelope. To estimate the maximum induced stress An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m30.jpg on the equatorial plane, we divide the maximum induced force by the area of the shell region (defined by the moving direction in the approximate model) on the equatorial plane. Following above discussion, we found that the maximum induced stress is twice the average value and the shell region covers 58% of the equatorial plane:

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If the required stress threshold An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m32.jpg to fracture a virus can be obtained, the threshold electric field magnitude An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m33.jpg of the incident microwaves can also be obtained by using:

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Figure 2 shows the threshold magnitude of the incident electric field at different frequencies with different Q based on equation (12) with a fixed An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m35.jpg threshold value. One can observe that the minimum of the threshold electric field magnitude occurs when the applied frequency is closed to the intrinsic resonant frequency. Moreover cavity quality factor Q plays a major role. By changing the pH value of the solution, charge status of viral surface can be modulated, which affects the Q of the vibration. For example, previous studies indicated that the cavity Q of spherical viruses ranges between 2–10 by raising the pH value of the solution from 5.4 to 7.4. With increased Q, more energy can be confined inside the resonator, which leads to much lower microwave field threshold magnitude at the resonant frequency.

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Threshold electric field magnitudes of the incident EM waves to fracture a virus as a function of angular frequency with different Q.

To experimentally study the efficiency of the SRET from microwaves to CAVs of spherical viruses, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 was used. H3N2 is a subtype of influenza A virus that causes flu. Such viruses can infect birds and mammals and are increasingly abundant in seasonal influenza, which kills an estimated 6309 people in the United States each year, including pneumonia and influenza causes. Based on previous studies, the averaged mass and the diameter of the H3N2 virus are 161 MDa and 100 nm. Here we approximate the structure of the virus as a nanosphere with a core-shell structure of opposite charge distribution. The shell (90% of the total mass) contains lipid, neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA), and M-protein. The core (10% of the total mass) includes RNA and RNP. The reduced mass (m*) of virus is thus 14.5 MDa. From the literature, force with 400 pN applied on the AFM tip can fracture the lipid envelope. Since the radius of the tip was 30 nm, the threshold stress to fracture the shell was 0.141 MPa (An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m36.jpg). In order to calculate the threshold magnitude of the electric field to fracture H3N2 virus following equation (12), some important parameters such as qQ and ω0 of the studied H3N2 virus has to be obtained by measuring the microwave absorption spectrum of viruses.

As shown in Fig. 3(a) we covered the structure of the coplanar waveguide (CPW) by the microfluidic channel with a 1.25 mm-long sensing zone (L) in order to measure the microwave absorption spectrum of viruses. This microwave microfluidic channel can provide a microwave bandwidth over 40 GHz. The measured results were summarized in Fig. 3(b). As the figure shows, the power absorption ratio (α) by the virus at the resonant frequency (8.2 GHz) was 21% and the Q was only 1.95 by measuring the full width at half maximum of the spectrum. Since the density of viruses (N) in the solution was 7.51014 m−3, experimental absorption cross section of the virus at the resonant frequency can be calculated by the equation below:

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(a) Designed CPW circuit for microwave spectrum measured covered with a microfluidic channel. (b) Measured microwave absorption spectrum of H3N2 viruses. (c) Estimated threshold electric field magnitude to fracture the virus as a function of microwave frequency.

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Object name is srep18030-m37.jpg

From equation (10), the theoretical absorption cross-section of the virus at the resonant frequency is:

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By setting An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m39.jpgof the PBS at 8.2 GHz as 67.13An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m40.jpg = An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m41.jpg can be obtained by comparing equation (13) and equation (14).

So far, all parameters for estimating electric field threshold in equation (12) are obtained. By substituting threshold Pstress = 0.141 MPaAn external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m42.jpg = An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is srep18030-m43.jpgm* = 14.5 MDa, Q = 1.95 and ω0 = 2π × 8.22 GHz into equation (12), threshold magnitude of electric field to fracture virus at different frequencies of microwave can be calculated. The result is shown in Fig. 3(c). In order to compare with the following inactivation experiments, our estimated threshold magnitude of electric field at 6, 8 and 10 GHz are 103.3, 86.9 and 137.1 V/m, respectively. The minimum threshold occurs close to 8 GHz due to resonance, and sufficient internal stress to fracture virus can be expected to be more efficiently generated by weaker electric field.

Based on the IEEE Microwave Safety Standard, the spatial averaged value of the power density in air in open public space shall not exceed the equivalent power density of 100(f/3)1/5 W/m2 at frequencies between 3 and 96 GHz (f is in GHz). This corresponds to 115 W/m2 at 6 GHz, 122 W/m2 at 8 GHz, and 127 W/m2 at 10 GHz for averaged values of the power densities in air. Assuming all the microwave power in air 100% transmitted into a specimen, and by taking the dielectric constant of water 71.92 (6 GHz), 67.4 (8 GHz), and 63.04 (10 GHz) for calculation, this safety standard then corresponds to the average electric field magnitude of 101 V/m (6 GHz), 106 V/m (8 GHz), 110 V/m (10 GHz) inside the water-based specimens. It is interesting to notice that the required threshold electric field magnitudes at the resonant frequency (86.9 V/m) to fracture H3N2 viruses as shown in Fig. 3(c) are within the IEEE Microwave Safety Standard (106 V/m), indicating high SRET efficiency, even though the quality factor of the H3N2 virus is low.

Results

Virus Inactivation Experiments – Frequency dependency

To investigate the resonant effect, we first measured the residual viral infectivity of influenza A virus after illuminating microwave of different frequencies. As shown in Fig. 4(a), viral samples were placed below the horn antenna. The sponge under the sample was used to decrease the reflection of the microwave. To check the inactivation ratio, illuminated viruses were then analyzed by plaque assay to measure the residual infectivity of viruses. We compared the titer of illuminated viruses (Ntest) and the titer of unilluminated control sets (Ncontrol) to calculate the inactivation ratio (1 − Ntest/Ncontrol) at different frequencies between 6–12 GHz.

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Object name is srep18030-f4.jpg

(a) Experimental setup for microwave illumination with different frequencies. (b) Inactivation ratio of H3N2 viruses after illuminating microwave with different frequencies.

Based on Fig. 3(c), the field intensity threshold for inactivating H3N2 virus ranges between 86.9–236.3 V/m, which corresponds to 82.3–564 W/m2, for microwaves between 6 and 12 GHz. Since the aperture size of our horn antenna was 9.8 cm × 7.1 cm. The required threshold power input ranges from 0.57 W to 3.92 W for 6–12 GHz microwaves. We thus first applied 6.3 W (38 dBm) fixed microwave power, which is higher than all the threshold power input, into the horn antenna for the frequency dependency studies. After considering the transmission coefficient of our horn antenna, this experimental condition corresponded to 765 – 882 W/m2 average illuminated power density on the sample surface, corresponding to the field intensity inside the specimen of 260–296 V/m respectively. For 8–8.4 GHz microwave at the resonant frequency, the average illuminated power density was about 810 W/m2, equivalent to 273 V/m effective field intensity inside the sample. We thus expect to observe the inactivation effect throughout the studied spectral range. As been summarized in Fig. 4(b), a frequency dependent inactivation ratio can be observed in our experiments, with a peak located at the resonant frequency of the dipolar mode while higher than 50% inactivation ratio can be observed throughout the studied frequency range. At 8.4 GHz, the measured titer count was zero, indicating 100% inactivation ratio, which means that the remaining active viral concentration was smaller than the system sensitivity of 10 pfu/mL. This result indicates at least a three-order of magnitudes attenuation on the virus titer, when the microwave frequency was tuned to the dipolar mode resonant frequency with the electric field intensity 3 times higher than the threshold. The illuminated average power density was roughly 6.7 times higher than the IEEE safety standard for the 8–8.4 GHz cases. It is important to notice that the power density is proportional to the square of the field intensity.

Virus Inactivation Experiments – Power density dependency

To further investigate the efficiency of this SRET effect from microwave to virus and the threshold effect, we further measured the inactivation ratio of H3N2 virus with different power densities at the resonant frequency ~8 GHz of the confined acoustic dipolar mode. Our theoretical model predicted an inactivation threshold field intensity of 86.9 V/m, corresponding to an average microwave power density of 82.3 W/m2 in specimen. Since we assume all power can transmit from air to specimen, power density in air is also 82.3 W/m2, which is 1.48 times lower than the IEEE safety standard. Figure 5 (b) summarized the measured inactivation ratio for 4 different average microwave power densities of 820, 320, 82, and 51 W/m2 in air, corresponding to an effective field intensity inside samples of 274, 171, 87, and 68 V/m, respectively. It is noted that the experiment with 82 W/m2 in air was performed in a different experimental setup, as shown in Fig. 5(a). A significant threshold effect can be observed when the effective field intensity inside samples started to be on the order of or exceed the estimated threshold. A 38% inactivation ratio can be observed with a field intensity of 87 V/m, while the inactivation ratio dropped drastically to only negligible 6% with a slightly lower 68 V/m field intensity. With a 3 times higher field intensity than the threshold, the inactivation ratio saturated at a 100% value.

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Object name is srep18030-f5.jpg

(a) Experimental setup for the red solid circle in Fig. 5(b). (b) Inactivation ratio for viruses illuminated by microwave with different power densities. The red solid circle was performed with the experimental setup shown in Fig. 5(a) and the black solid squares were performed with the experimental setup shown in Fig. 4(a).

Discussions

Compared with the simple theoretical model for threshold estimation as summarized in Fig. 3(c), our result agrees qualitatively and surprisingly quantitatively. First, in our experiments, we observed a strong resonant effect on the virus inactivation ratio at the dipolar oscillation frequency of 8.4 GHz, thus indicating that the observed virus inactivation after microwave illumination was due to the proposed SRET from microwave to virus through dipolar coupling. Second, at the resonant frequency, we do observe H3N2 virus inactivation by illuminating 82 W/m2 (lower than the IEEE safety standard in public space) 8 GHz microwaves on our viral solution, corresponding to an average 87 V/m electric field intensity inside the solution, confirming that our proposed simple model to estimate the field threshold (86.9 V/m) to structurally fracture the virus is quantitatively correct, especially combining the observed threshold effect as discussed above. With a low resonator quality factor (around and less than 2 for H3N2), we also observed virus inactivation in off-resonant frequencies (6-12GHz), following a trend predicted with our model. However for off-resonant frequencies, the simple harmonic oscillator model seems to always estimate a lower threshold in the Stoke-side (lower-frequency-side) of the resonant frequency than the anti-Stoke-side (high-frequency-side). For example, at DC (0 frequency) it still predicts a relatively low threshold field magnitude to fracture the virus. This is different from our observation. We observe that the anti-Stoke-side is with a better inactivation ratio than the Stoke-side, and the source for disagreement should be the over-simplification of the adopted model.

Our result regarding the efficient SRET to inactivate virus with a low microwave power has a profound meaning. As we introduced, in the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been made to kill airborne viruses such as SARS or influenza A, which have caused catastrophic illness worldwide. Active airborne viruses are always transported inside tiny water droplets, thus similar to our experimental condition. A strategy for airborne virus epidemic prevention in open public is thus highly desired. Our finding represents the first possible mechanism to inactivate airborne viruses without affecting the open public, since the required microwave power could be within the IEEE safety standard. Comparing this work with traditional microwave thermal inactivation, previous works, used a microwaves oven with more than 100 W to heat the phage suspension. The inactivation ratio could reach almost 100% by increasing the temperature of the phage suspension to 80 °C. In our case, 100% inactivation were achieved with 6.3 W (38 dBm) as the input power into the horn antenna at 8.4 GHz. A power reduction by more than a factor of 15 is achieved. It is however not possible to directly compare the irradiating power density, since the irradiating area was not provided in previous literatures. Nevertheless our work still shows sharp contrast to current methodologies, including strong chemical inactivation, UV irradiation, and microwave thermal heating with 100 W microwave power,, which are not safe for the open public.

A previous study has shown that to inactivate human H3N2 viruses through thermal heating, the temperature need to be higher than 55 °C. Compared with the 82 W/m2 radiated microwave power density (0.63 W required power input) in our resonant inactivation case, the current microwave thermal heating method to inactivate virus usually requires more than 100 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz,, which is way beyond the safety standard, in order to raise the sample temperature to be higher than 60 °C for protein denature. It is known that the microwave thermal heating has a weak frequency dependency between 6–12 GHz, and this is not the case for our frequency dependent result as shown in Fig. 4(b). To confirm that our observation is not due to the microwave thermal heating effect, we had monitored the sample temperature change during the microwave illumination experiments with a radiated power density of 486 W/m2 at a frequency of 6 GHz by using an infrared thermal imaging camera with a temperature accuracy of 0.05 °C (CHCT, P384-20). The temperature rise after 15 minutes radiation was 7 °C, from 27.5 °C up to 34.5 °C. We thus exclude the possible contribution of microwave thermal heating effect to inactivation H3N2 viruses under our experimental condition.

To double-confirm our proposed mechanism that the inactivation was through physically fracturing the structure of viruses, we established a fractured virus model by freezing the virus samples with liquid nitrogen and thawed immediately and repeated several times. We then preformed real-time RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) experiment for RNA amplification in order to compare the results after microwave illumination with the established fractured-virus model. Without protein denature, the established fractured-virus model allowed the viral RNA content to be extracted after fracturing. We then performed the RT-PCR experiments to amplify the extracted viral RNA after fracturing either through the frozen fracturing model or after microwave resonant irradiation. Figure 6(a) summarized our results. The applied average microwave power density was 320 W/m2, the microwave frequency was tuned to the dipolar mode resonant frequency of 8.35 GHz, and the illumination time was 15 minutes. To avoid possible existing viral RNA in solution before the microwave illumination, we pretreated the virus samples by adding RNase to degrade the existing RNA outside the viral particles. As can be revealed in Fig. 6(a), the control fractured-virus model (shown as “control”) showed the same RNA amplification trend with excellent quantitative agreement with the RNase-pretreated samples after microwave resonant illumination (shown as “pretreat”). Obvious increase of copies in PCR can be observed after cycle 15. We have also performed two post-treat groups to double confirm the effect of the RNase. For post-treat groups, RNase was added right after the microwave resonant illumination. Even if the virus particles were fractured, the released RNA would be degraded by RNase, we did not expect to detect the viral RNA. As been also confirmed by our RT-PCR experiment as shown in Fig. 6(a), we were not able to detect the signal of RNA for the post-treat groups even after 45 cycles.

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The RNA count for each amplification cycle of (a) H3N2 and (b) H1N1 viruses.

Since all the RNAs outside the virus surface in the solution were eliminated before the microwave illumination, for the pretreat samples the only way to detect the RNA signal after the illumination was to fracture the virus so that the RNA can be released. This result was also in good agreement on the amount of amplified RNA in the control cases. These facts confirmed that the inactivation of viruses by illuminating microwaves at the dipolar mode resonant frequency was through physically fracturing the lipid-envelope of the influenza virus without denaturing the viral RNA.

To show that the investigated SRET effect can be applied to deactivate viruses other than H3N2, we have also performed the real-time RT-PCR experiment on H1N1 virus. The result was shown in Fig. 6(b). The applied microwave frequency was 7 GHz, while the applied average microwave power density was 308 W/m2, corresponding to an effective electric field of 167 V/m inside the specimens. The rest of the experimental conditions were the same as that of Fig. 6(a). Similar results can be observed, indicating that the same SRET induced inactivation effect can also occurs in virus other than H3N2.

In summary, we investigated the structure resonance energy transfer from microwave to CAVs of H3N2 virus in water-based solution. The efficiency of such energy transfer was investigated through exploring the virus inactivation ratio. Based on the proposed damped mass-spring model and the experimentally measured microwave absorption cross-section of a single virus, threshold magnitude of electric field to fracture viruses at different illuminated frequencies can be estimated. After the illumination by the microwave, the plaque assay experiment indicated that the inactivation ratio reaches its maximum at the resonant frequency of the dipolar resonance. The real-time RT-PCR experiment double confirmed that the main inactivation mechanism was through physically fracturing viruses without degrading viral RNA genome. This work not only theoretically and experimentally demonstrates a new energy transfer mechanism between EM waves and viruses, but also indicates an efficient SRET effect. Our results have important implications for the interaction between microwaves and biological tissues, which is a highly concerned public issue. With an observed inactivation threshold with a microwave power density within the IEEE safety standard, the demonstrated SRET mechanism also provides a pathway toward establishing a new epidemic prevention strategy in open public for airborne viruses.

Methods

H3N2/H1N1 Sample Preparation

To prepare the H3N2 and H1N1 virus samples, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were confluent grown in 75 cm2 flasks, inoculated by influenza A virus H3N2 (H090103, NTU Hospital) or H1N1 (NTUH135/2009, NTU Hospital) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01 and incubated at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator for 2–3 days. When the cytopathic effect (CPE) of the inoculated cells reached to 3 + (75%), we harvested the viral supernatant. The viruses were aliquot and stored at −80 °C for further use.

Microwave Absorption Spectrum Measurement

The microwave absorption spectrum measurement was performed by combining the coplanar waveguide (CPW) circuit with a microfluidic channel. As shown in Fig. 3(a), we covered the structure of the CPW by the microfluidic channel with a 1.25 mm-long sensing zone (L). The gap between the signal electrode and the ground electrode of the CPW was 25 μm. In order to decrease microwave loss on the electrodes, the gold layer thickness of the electrode was 1.2 μm. On the surface of electrodes, we grew a thermal isolator layer of silicon dioxide on the sensing zone by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) to lower the temperature rise of fluids due to microwave dielectric heating. We then used a network analyzer (Anritsu, MS2028C) as the source to measure the absorption spectrum of H3N2 viruses from 6 GHz to 14 GHz. The virus particle density in the solution was 7.5 × 1014 m−3. The spectrum of the solution without viruses was first measured as a reference; solution with viruses was later measured. By removing the solution background, the microwave absorption spectrum of H3N2 viruses in solution was thus obtained (Fig. 3(b)) following a procedure similar to ref. .

Microwave Illumination Measurement

In our experiments, we used two different microwave sources, depending on the utilized microwave power: a network analyzer (Anritsu, MS2028C) or an Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) oscillator. Then the microwave signal was amplified by a power amplifier (QPJ-06183640) and radiated from the horn antenna (ELECTRO-METRICS, EM-6969). The aperture size of the antenna was 9.8 cm × 7.1 cm. To avoid damage on oscillator and amplifier caused by back reflection, we added an isolator and a directional coupler. All the microwave systems were put in a P2 class flow hood. The antenna was directed toward the bottom (Fig. 4(a)) or the side (Fig. 5(a)) of flow hood and the microwave was normally incident on either microscope slides (Fig. 4(a)) or acrylic cuvettes (Fig. 5(a)) at a distance of 5 cm below the exit of horn antenna. To avoid large reflection from the metal hood surface, the microscope slide or cuvette was put in a plastic dish supported by a broad band pyramidal absorber. For each measurement, the viral solution (7.5 × 1014 m−3 particle density) under illumination was drop on the slide and covered with a cover glass or was contained inside the cuvettes. Under such an experimental geometry, we illuminated viruses for 15 minutes at various microwave frequencies or at various microwave powers. After illumination, we used buffer to wash-down and collect the viruses, which introduced a 10-fold dilution of virus concentration. Then the illuminated viral solutions, together with the control sets were sent for plaque assay.

Quantitative Plaque Assay Analysis

To measure the activity of viruses, we employed a quantitative plaque assay. The MDCK cells used for plaque assay were grown in 6 wells plates by adding 3 mL of cells (2 × 105/mL) to individual well. After confluent growth of MDCK cells in plates, the cells were successively washed with phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.2) and Eagles’ MEM with 2 μg/mL TPCK trypsin. After washed, 100 μL of the ten-fold serial dilution of viruses were added into each well. For better virus adsorption, the inoculated cells were incubated at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator for one hour. After then, the virus inoculums were removed and the Eagles’ minimal essential medium with 2 μg/mL TPCK trypsin and 0.5% agarose was added. After the gel formation, the plates were put in a 5% CO2 incubator for at least 42–48 hrs. After incubation, the plates were fixed with 10% formalin for 1 hour. After pour off agarose, the fixed cells were stained with crystal violet for 15 min and washed with tap water. Below certain virus concentration, the plaques wouldn’t overlap each other seriously and can be counted unambiguously. Considering the corresponding dilution factor, the plaque forming unit per mL (pfu/mL) of the original virus can thus be quantified. The titer measurement will be performed three times on the same sample to reduce quantization error. Quantified by the plaque assay, the concentration of active viruses in our prepared viral solutions was around 107/ml for H1N1 and H3N2.

Real-time PCR Analysis

The sample RNA was extracted and amplified by the RT and quantitative real-time PCR (Primerdesign Precision OneStep™ qRT-PCR Mastermix) with primer AMF (sequence: 5′-GAGTCTTCTAACCGAGGTCGAAACGTA-3′), primer flu-AR (sequence: 5′-CAAAGCGTCTACGCTGCAGTCC-3′) and flu A (5′-FAM-tttgtgtttacgctcaccgt-TAMRA-3′) probe. For control group, RNase was added for 10 minutes digestion and stopped with RNase inhibitor. Then viruses were fractured artificially by freeze-thaw treatment. We thus were able to observe that the RNA signal of virus rose after 15 cycles of the amplification. For pre-treated groups, the RNase treatment were done and stopped before 8 GHz microwave illumination in order to make sure that RNA outside the viral envelope was eliminated in the first place. For the post-treat groups, RNase was added right after the illumination. If the virus particles were fractured, the released RNA would be degraded by RNase.

Additional Information

How to cite this article: Yang, S.-C. et al. Efficient Structure Resonance Energy Transfer from Microwaves to Confined Acoustic Vibrations in Viruses. Sci. Rep5, 18030; doi: 10.1038/srep18030 (2015).

Supplementary Material

Supplementary Information:

Supplementary Movie S1:

Supplementary Movie S2:

Acknowledgments

This project was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan under MOST 103-2112 -M-002-016-MY3.

Footnotes

Author Contributions C.K.S. initiated the concept and conducted the experiments. S.C.Y., H.C.L. and T.M.L. performed the experiments. J.T.L., W.T.H., Y.R.H., Y.C.T., C.L.K. and S.Y.C. participated the discussion. S.C.Y. and C.K.S. wrote this manuscript and analyzed all data.

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23 MAY 2020 – Biden commits high treason! Bribing Poroshenko and interfering with another countries prosecution, because Hunter, his son, was implicated in the said crime

Caught on tape and with Obama’s blessing! Biden&Poroshenko-ShokinResign1Biden&Poroshenko-ShokinResign2Biden&Poroshenko-ShokinResign3Biden&Poroshenko-ShokinResign4

Poroshenko: Joe, I have a second positive news for you.  Yesterday, I met with the General Prosecutor Shokin.  And despite the fact that we didn’t have any corruption charges, we don’t have any information about him doing something wrong, I specially asked him – no it was the day before yesterday- I specially asked him to resign.  In, uh, as his, uh position as state person.  And despite the fact that he has a support in the power.  And as finish of my meeting with him, he promised me to give me the statement on resignation.  And one hour ago he bring me the written statement of his resignation.

20 May 2020 – The Executive ORDER to OPEN the country

All I'm hearing from liberals is Trump is the most hated president ever | TigerDroppings.com 

 

 

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 (“the virus”) was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China, causing an outbreak of the disease COVID-19, which has now spread globally.  The Secretary of Health and Human Services declared a public health emergency on January 31, 2020, under section 319 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 247d), in response to COVID-19.  In Proclamation 9994 of March 13, 2020 (Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak), I declared that the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States constituted a national emergency, beginning March 1, 2020.

I have taken sweeping action to control the spread of the virus in the United States, including by suspending entry of certain foreign nationals who present a risk of transmitting the virus; implementing policies to accelerate acquisition of personal protective equipment and bring new diagnostic capabilities to laboratories; and pressing forward rapidly in the search for effective treatments and vaccines.  Our States, tribes, territories, local communities, health authorities, hospitals, doctors and nurses, manufacturers, and critical infrastructure workers have all performed heroic service on the front lines battling COVID-19.  Executive departments and agencies (agencies), under my leadership, have helped them by taking hundreds of administrative actions since March, many of which provided flexibility regarding burdensome requirements that stood in the way of implementing the most effective strategies to stop the virus’s spread.

The virus has attacked our Nation’s economy as well as its health.  Many businesses and non-profits have been forced to close or lay off workers, and in the last 8 weeks, the Nation has seen more than 36 million new unemployment insurance claims.  I have worked with the Congress to provide vital relief to small businesses to keep workers employed and to bring assistance to those who have lost their jobs.  On April 16, 2020, I announced Guidelines for Opening Up America Again, a framework for safely re-opening the country and putting millions of Americans back to work.

Just as we continue to battle COVID-19 itself, so too must we now join together to overcome the effects the virus has had on our economy.  Success will require the efforts not only of the Federal Government, but also of every State, tribe, territory, and locality; of businesses, non-profits, and houses of worship; and of the American people.  To aid those efforts, agencies must continue to remove barriers to the greatest engine of economic prosperity the world has ever known:  the innovation, initiative, and drive of the American people.

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1.  Policy.  It is the policy of the United States to combat the economic consequences of COVID-19 with the same vigor and resourcefulness with which the fight against COVID-19 itself has been waged.  Agencies should address this economic emergency by rescinding, modifying, waiving, or providing exemptions from regulations and other requirements that may inhibit economic recovery, consistent with applicable law and with protection of the public health and safety, with national and homeland security, and with budgetary priorities and operational feasibility.  They should also give businesses, especially small businesses, the confidence they need to re-open by providing guidance on what the law requires; by recognizing the efforts of businesses to comply with often-complex regulations in complicated and swiftly changing circumstances; and by committing to fairness in administrative enforcement and adjudication.

Sec. 2Definitions.  (a)  “Emergency authorities” means any statutory or regulatory authorities or exceptions that authorize action in an emergency, in exigent circumstances, for good cause, or in similar situations.

(b)  “Agency” has the meaning given in section 3502 of title 44, United States Code.

(c)  “Administrative enforcement” includes investigations, assertions of statutory or regulatory violations, and adjudications by adjudicators as defined herein.

(d)  “Adjudicator” means an agency official who makes a determination that has legal consequence, as defined in section 2(d) of Executive Order 13892 of October 9, 2019 (Promoting the Rule of Law Through Transparency and Fairness in Civil Administrative Enforcement and Adjudication), for a person, except that it does not mean the head of an agency, a member of a multi-member board that heads an agency, or a Presidential appointee.

(e)  “Pre-enforcement ruling” has the meaning given it in section 2(f) of Executive Order 13892.

(f)  “Regulatory standard” includes any requirement imposed on the public by a Federal regulation, as defined in section 2(g) of Executive Order 13892, or any recommendation, best practice, standard, or other, similar provision of a Federal guidance document as defined in section 2(c) of Executive Order 13892.
(g) “Unfair surprise” has the meaning given it in section 2(e) of Executive Order 13892.

Sec. 3.  Federal Response.  The heads of all agencies are directed to use, to the fullest extent possible and consistent with applicable law, any emergency authorities that I have previously invoked in response to the COVID-19 outbreak or that are otherwise available to them to support the economic response to the COVID-19 outbreak.  The heads of all agencies are also encouraged to promote economic recovery through non-regulatory actions.

Sec. 4.  Rescission and waiver of regulatory standards.  The heads of all agencies shall identify regulatory standards that may inhibit economic recovery and shall consider taking appropriate action, consistent with applicable law, including by issuing proposed rules as necessary, to temporarily or permanently rescind, modify, waive, or exempt persons or entities from those requirements, and to consider exercising appropriate temporary enforcement discretion or appropriate temporary extensions of time as provided for in enforceable agreements with respect to those requirements, for the purpose of promoting job creation and economic growth, insofar as doing so is consistent with the law and with the policy considerations identified in section 1 of this order.

Sec. 5.  Compliance assistance for regulated entities.  (a)  The heads of all agencies, excluding the Department of Justice, shall accelerate procedures by which a regulated person or entity may receive a pre-enforcement ruling under Executive Order 13892 with respect to whether proposed conduct in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, including any response to legislative or executive economic stimulus actions, is consistent with statutes and regulations administered by the agency, insofar as doing so is consistent with the law and with the policy considerations identified in section 1 of this order.
Pre‑enforcement rulings under this subsection may be issued without regard to the requirements of section 6(a) of Executive Order 13892.

(b)  The heads of all agencies shall consider whether to formulate, and make public, policies of enforcement discretion that, as permitted by law and as appropriate in the context of particular statutory and regulatory programs and the policy considerations identified in section 1 of this order, decline enforcement against persons and entities that have attempted in reasonable good faith to comply with applicable statutory and regulatory standards, including those persons and entities acting in conformity with a pre-enforcement ruling.

(c)  As a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Department of Health and Human Services, including through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other agencies have issued, or plan to issue in the future, guidance on action suggested to stem the transmission and spread of that disease.  In formulating any policies of enforcement discretion undersubsection (b) of this section, an agency head should consider a situation in which a person or entity makes a reasonable attempt to comply with such guidance, which the person or entity reasonably deems applicable to its circumstances, to be a rationale for declining enforcement under subsection (b) of this section.  Non-adherence to guidance shall not by itself form the basis for an enforcement action by a Federal agency.

Sec. 6Fairness in Administrative Enforcement and Adjudication.  The heads of all agencies shall consider the principles of fairness in administrative enforcement and adjudication listed below, and revise their procedures and practices in light of them, consistent with applicable law and as they deem appropriate in the context of particular statutory and regulatory programs and the policy considerations identified in section 1 of this order.

(a)  The Government should bear the burden of proving an alleged violation of law; the subject of enforcement should not bear the burden of proving compliance.

(b)  Administrative enforcement should be prompt and fair.

(c)  Administrative adjudicators should be independent of enforcement staff.

(d)  Consistent with any executive branch confidentiality interests, the Government should provide favorable relevant evidence in possession of the agency to the subject of an administrative enforcement action.

(e)  All rules of evidence and procedure should be public, clear, and effective.

(f)  Penalties should be proportionate, transparent, and imposed in adherence to consistent standards and only as authorized by law.

(g)  Administrative enforcement should be free of improper Government coercion.

(h)  Liability should be imposed only for violations of statutes or duly issued regulations, after notice and an opportunity to respond.

(i)  Administrative enforcement should be free of unfair surprise.

(j)  Agencies must be accountable for their administrative enforcement decisions.

Sec. 7Review of Regulatory Response.  The heads of all agencies shall review any regulatory standards they have temporarily rescinded, suspended, modified, or waived during the public health emergency, any such actions they take pursuant to section 4 of this order, and other regulatory flexibilities they have implemented in response to COVID-19, whether before or after issuance of this order, and determine which, if any, would promote economic recovery if made permanent, insofar as doing so is consistent with the policy considerations identified in section 1 of this order, and report the results of such review to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy.

Sec. 8Implementation.  The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, shall monitor compliance with this order and may also issue memoranda providing guidance for implementing this order, including by setting deadlines for the reviews and reports required under section 7 of this order.

Sec. 9.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c)  Notwithstanding any other provision in this order, nothing in this order shall apply to any action that pertains to foreign or military affairs, or to a national security or homeland security function of the United States (other than procurement actions and actions involving the import or export of non-defense articles and services).

(d)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

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