3-D printed organs aid vaccine testing
WAKE FOREST INSTITUTE FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE (TOP)
As shortages of personal protective equipment persist during the coronavirus pandemic, 3-D printing has helped to alleviate some of the gaps. But Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and his team are using the process in a more innovative way: creating tiny replicas of human organs — some as small as a pinhead — to test drugs to fight COVID-19.
The team is constructing miniature lungs and colons — two organs particularly affected by the coronavirus — then sending them overnight for testing at a biosafety lab at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va. While they initially created some of the organoids by hand using a pipette, they are beginning to print these at scale for research.
In the past few years, Atala’s institute had printed these tiny clusters of cells to test drug efficacy against bacteria and infectious diseases like the Zika virus, “but we never thought we’d be considering this for a pandemic,” he said. His team has the ability to print “thousands an hour,” he said from his lab in Winston-Salem, N.C.
The process of constructing human tissue this way is a form of bioprinting. While its use in humans is years away, researchers are honing the methods to test drugs and, eventually, to create skin and full-size organs for transplanting. Researchers are making strides in printing skin, critical for burn victims; managing diseases like diabetes in which wound healing is difficult; and for the testing of cosmetics without harming animals.
“Even to us it sometimes seems like science fiction,” said Akhilesh Gaharwar, who directs a cross-disciplinary lab in the biomedical engineering department at Texas A&M University that focuses on bioprinting and other approaches to regenerative medicine.
Bioprinting’s importance for pharmaceutical analysis is paramount now, not only for COVID-19 treatments but also for testing treatments for cancer and other diseases.
He cited Rezulin, a diabetes drug recalled in 2000 after there was evidence of liver failure. His lab tested an archived version of the drug, and Atala said that within two weeks, the liver toxicity became apparent. What accounts for the difference? An organoid replicates an organ in its purest form and offers data points that might not occur in clinical trials, he said, adding that the testing is additive to, rather than in lieu of, clinical trials.
“The 3-D models can circumvent animal testing and make the pathway stronger from the lab to the clinic,” Gaharwar said.
The foundation for a printed organ is known as a scaffold, made of biodegradable materials. To provide nutrition for the organoid, microscopic channels only 50 microns in diameter — roughly half the size of a human hair — are included in the scaffold. Once completed, the “bioink,” a liquid combination of cells and hydrogel that turns into gelatin, is then printed onto the scaffold “like a layer cake,” Atala said.
Another important part of the process is constructing blood vessels as part of the printing. Using a cell known as a fibroblast, which helps with growth, along with collagen, as a scaffold, researchers printed the epidermis and dermis, the first two layers of skin. (The hypodermis is the third layer.) “It turns out the skin cells don’t mind being sheared” and they could survive, said Pankaj Karande, an assistant professor of chemical and biological engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
But without incorporating blood vessels, the skin eventually sloughs off. Collaborating with Jordan Pober and W. Mark Saltzman of Yale University, they eventually succeeded in constructing all three layers of human skin as well as vasculature, or blood vessels.
The three began experimenting with integrating human endothelial cells, which line blood vessels, and pericyte cells, which surround the endothelial cells, into the skin as it was printed. Eventually, they were able to integrate the blood vessels with the skin and found that connections were formed between new and existing blood vessels.
While the work is preliminary, Karande said he was hopeful that the success in printing integrated skin and vasculature would set the stage for successful grafting in humans. “We have Plan A, which we often know won’t work, and then we go down the list,” he said about their research. “We can often write about what works in five pages but have 5,000 pages of what didn’t work.”
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Market Analysis: Global 3D-Printed Organs Market
Global 3D-printed organs market is set to witness a substantial CAGR in the forecast period of 2019- 2026. The report contains data of the base year 2018 and historic year 2017.The rise in the market can be attributed to the increasing demand of organs transplant.
Key Market Competitors:
Few of the major competitors currently working in global 3D-printed organs market are Organovo Holdings Inc., Modern Meadow, Poietis, REGEMAT 3D S.L., Cellbricks, Nano3D Biosciences, Inc., Medprin Regenerative Medical Technologies Co., Ltd, EnvisionTEC, nScrypt, Advanced Solutions, Inc., Digilab Inc., TeVido BioDevices, Aspect Biosystems Ltd., Cyfuse Biomedical K.K. and CELLINK GLOBAL among others.
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Market Definition: Global 3D-Printed Organs Market
3D organs printer prints organs layer-by-layer by using 3D printing method and regenerative medicine by placing biomaterials or bio-inks on structures tissues and organs. Although, these modified medical products can only imitate the natural tissues/organs, they cannot be utilized as replacement for the original organs. The market is expected to rise rapidly in the future due to increasing usage of 3D-printed organs.
3D-Printed Organs Market Drivers
- Growing Research & Development on 3D printing technology is expected to drive the growth of the market in the forecasted period
- Rise in usage and application of 3D organs and increasing population suffering from chronic diseases will propel the market growth
- Increasing geriatric population as this population is more prone towards surgical treatments and procedures which may boost the market in the forecast period
- Government investments in 3D printing projects is also contributing to the growth of this market
3D-Printed Organs Market Restraints
- High risk associated with 3D-printed organs is expected to hinder the market in the forecast period
- The 3D organs printer emits unhealthy particles into the air which is the major environmental issue, resulting in restraining the market growth
- High cost of 3D organs can decrease the usage may hamper the growth of the market
Segmentation: Global 3D-Printed Organs Market
3D-Printed Organs Market : By Organ Type
3D-Printed Organs Market : By Technology
- Magnetic Levitation
- Inkjet Based
- Syringe Based
- Laser Based
3D-Printed Organs Market : By End User
- Research Centers/Laboratory
- Medical Collages
3D-Printed Organs Market : By Geography
- North America
- South America
- Middle East & Africa
Key Developments in the Market:
- In April, 2019 Tel Aviv University Israel has developed 3D printed heart with blood vessels for the creation of heart complete with blood vessels and human tissue. The development will help market to grow in the future as the development will increase possibilities for 3D printed heart transplants
- In November 2018, CELLINK AB acquired Dispendix GmbH. This acquisition helped the company by enabling Dispendix’s technology implementation in CELLINK’s bio printing applications and it will also help to increase the dispensing rate of bioink in 3D printers and provide efficient printing capabilities
Global 3D-printed organs market is highly fragmented and the major players have used various strategies such as new product launches, expansions, agreements, joint ventures, partnerships, acquisitions, and others to increase their footprints in this market. The report includes market shares of 3D-printed organs market for Global, Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East & Africa.
Research Methodology: Global 3D-Printed Organs Market
Data collection and base year analysis is done using data collection modules with large sample sizes. The market data is analysed and forecasted using market statistical and coherent models. Also market share analysis and key trend analysis are the major success factors in the market report. To know more please request an analyst call or can drop down your enquiry.
The key research methodology used by DBMR research team is data triangulation which involves data mining, analysis of the impact of data variables on the market, and primary (industry expert) validation. Apart from this, other data models include Vendor Positioning Grid, Market Time Line Analysis, Market Overview and Guide, Company Positioning Grid, Company Market Share Analysis, Standards of Measurement, Top to Bottom Analysis and Vendor Share Analysis. To know more about the research methodology, drop in an inquiry to speak to our industry experts.
Demand Side: Doctors, Surgeons, Medical Consultants, Nurses, Hospital Buyers, Group Purchasing Organizations, Associations, Insurers, Medical Payers, Healthcare Authorities, Universities, Technological Writers, Scientists, Promoters, and Investors among others.
Supply Side: Product Managers, Marketing Managers, C-Level Executives, Distributors, Market Intelligence, and Regulatory Affairs Managers among others.
Reasons to Purchase this Report
- Current and future of global 3D-printed organs market outlook in the developed and emerging markets.
- The segment that is expected to dominate the market as well as the segment which holds highest CAGR in the forecast period
- Regions/Countries that are expected to witness the fastest growth rates during the forecast period
- The latest developments, market shares, and strategies that are employed by the major market players
Customization of the Report:
- All segmentation provided above in this report is represented at country level
- All products covered in the market, product volume and average selling prices will be included as customizable options which may incur no or minimal additional cost (depends on customization)
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